1. Define DNA.
2. What is the structure (shape) of a DNA molecule?
3. DNA is a polymer of ____________. (Hint: check back to Chapter 2 section 7.)
4. Identify the complementary base pairings in DNA.
5. What is meant by “DNA replication is semi-conservative”?
6. A strand of DNA has the sequence on the left (read from top to bottom). Next to each base (after the dash), write the complementary base that would match with it during DNA replication.
7. Give the purpose of mRNA
8. Give the purpose of tRNA.
9. Give the purpose of rRNA.
10. List 3 differences between DNA and mRNA.
11. Does DNA leave the nucleus to direct the production of proteins?
12. Define codon.
13. Define anticodon.
14. A strand of DNA has the sequence on the left (read from top to bottom). Next to each base (after the dash), write the complementary base that would match with it during RNA transcription.
15. Using your answer from question 14, what will be the required complementary tRNA anticodons for the mRNA codons? (Read the mRNA from the top to the bottom and then provide the sequence for the tRNA in the same order.)
16. What molecule brings amino acids to the ribosome to synthesize proteins?
17. Identify and define two methods used in gene therapy. Give general definitions of the two types, not examples of how they are used.
18. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) makes copies of what?
19. Define transgenic organisms.
20. Identify four uses for transgenic organisms. The next group of questions are based on the following information: DNA template molecule is: 5 prime (5′) end: A-G-C-T-A-T-C-T-A-C-G-A: 3 prime (3′) end
21. What will be produced by DNA replication? (Start from the 5 prime end and list each complementary DNA base in order all the way to the 3 prime end.)
22. What is the mRNA that will be produced. (Again start from the 5 prime end and list each complementary RNA base in order all the way to the 3 prime end.) template)
23. What is the tRNA anticodon that will be needed to match the first mRNA codon in the sequence written for the answer to the previous question?
24. What is the sequence of amino acids that will be produced by translating the mRNA sequence written for the answer to two questions above? (read codons left to right)
25. What is a mutation?
26. How many codons are contained in the mRNA in the question 22?
27. According to scientific studies, how many years ago did life originate on earth?
28. Why is natural selection considered to be the mechanism for evolution?
29. What is the difference between homologous and analogous structures?
30. List three examples of biochemical evidence for evolution.