Extractionof DNA

 

Hands-On Labs, Inc. Version 42-0056-00-01

 

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Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute foraformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperimentsquestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables thatshouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.Theintentistofacilitatestudents’writingoflab reports by providing this informationin an editable filewhichcan be sent to an instructor.

 

Questions                                                                                                                 

 

A. Describe what the DNA from the split peas looked like?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.  Wereyourexperimentalresultswhatyouexpectedtosee?Specifically,wastheremoreor less DNA than you expected?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.  Whatwasthepurposeofaddingthedetergenttotheexperiment?Ifthedetergentwasnot used, do you think the experiment results would have changed? Explain your answer.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

D. Ifyouused5%isopropylalcoholinsteadof91%isopropylalcohol,doyouthinktheexperiment results would have changed? Explain your reasoning.

 

 

 

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Mitosis

 

Hands-OnLabs,Inc. Version42-0091-00-01

 

LabReport Assistant                                                                                             Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute foraformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperimentsquestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables thatshouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.Theintentistofacilitatestudents’writingoflab reports by providing this informationin an editable filewhichcan be sent to an instructor.

 

MitosisWorksheet- Answer the questionsabout the photos below:

Onion root tipphotos at 600x and 1000x taken by Stan Carpenter of Hands-On Labs, Inc.

 


 

1.  What phase is this cell undergoing?

 

 

 

 

 

2.  What happens afterthis phase?


 

1. The two center side-by-side cells are undergoingtwodifferent phasesof mitosis.

 

a.  What are these phases?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

b.  Whatdiagnosticfeaturescanhelp you with your decision?


 

 

 


1.  What phase is this cell undergoing?

 

 

 

2.  How can you tell?


1.  This cell has clearly visible chromatids.

 

a.  What’sthenextphasethiscellwill undergo?

 

 

 

b.  Wherewillthechromatidsgointhe coming phase?


 

 

 

 

 


1.  Thecellinthelowercenterisexhibitingsigns of what phase of mitosis?

 

 

 

2.  Whatphasedoesitappearthecellaboveis undergoing?


1.  Explainwhathappensduringanaphase.

 

 

 

 

 

2.  Whenthechromatidsseparate,whatis each called?


 

 

Questions                                                                                                          

 

A. What is the purpose of mitosis?

 

 

 

B.  Why is the cell cycle important for organisms?

 

 

 

 

 

C.  What role does mitosis play in the growth of an embryo?

 

 

 

D. What is one main differencein the mitoticprocesses between plant and animal cells?

 

 

 

 

 

E.  Ifthecellthathasundergonemitosisoriginallyhadthediploid(2n)numberofchromosomes, then what number of chromosomes will the nuclei in the two new cells have?

 

 

 

F.    Can mitosis ever be usedfor reproduction?

 

 

 

G. What parts of plants are most impactedby mitosis?

 

 

 

H. Why might mitosis be easier to study in the tipof the root?

 

 

 

I.    Where else in a plant might you finda large amount of mitoticcell division occurring? J.    How might the mitoticindex be applied in agriculture?

 

 

K.  Whatdidyoucomputetobethemitoticindexofthecombinedsixslides(assumethereare

54totalcells)?IncomparisontotheindexesreflectedinFigure8,fromapproximatelywhicharea

 

of a root was the sample taken?

 

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CellMembraneTransport

Hands-OnLabs,Inc.Version42-0034-00-01

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Exercise1:DiffusionthroughanArtificialMembrane

Observations                                                                                                           

 

 

Data Table 1: Changes During Dialysis

Color

Before Dialysis

AfterDialysis

Solutionin cup 1

 

 

Solutionin dialysis tubing

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Table 2: Benedicts Reagent Results

Color of Solution

Before Heating

AfterHeating

IKI solutionin cup 1

 

 

Solutionin dialysis bag in cup 2

 

 

Distilledwater

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questions                                                                                                          

 

A. What is the purpose of this exercise? What is being tested?

 

 

 

B.  What color change did you observe in the dialysis tubing? What does that change indicate? C.  Was there a color change in the water surrounding the tubing? If so, explain.


 

 

D. WhatcolorchangedidyouobserveinthewatercontainingtheIKIafterheating?Whatdoes that change indicate?

 

 

 

E.  What does the Benedicts reagent detect? F.       What does the IKI solutiondetect?

G. In what way is a cell membrane similar to the model cell made of dialysis tubing? H. Is the transport mechanism in the model cell passive or active?Why?

 

 

Exercise 2: Diffusionat differenttemperatures

Observations                                                                                                    

 

 

Data Table 3: Diffusionof KMnO4at Various Temperatures and Times

 

Temperature inside cup

Colorof Water

0min

5min

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questions                                                                                                          

 

I.    How does temperature affectthe rate of diffusion?

 

 

 

J.    State a general hypothesis to cover how temperature affectsrate of diffusion


 

 

Exercise 3: Tonicity and Diffusion

Observations                                                                                                    

 

 

Data Table 4: Potato Dimensions.

 

 

Potato

 

BeforeOsmosis

(L× W)cm

 

AfterOsmosis

(L× W)cm

Tonicity

Hypertonic, Isotonic, or

Hypotonic

Distilledwater

 

 

 

10% Sodium Chloride

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Questions                                                                                                          

 

A. Whatistheconditionofeachpotatostripaftersoakinginthetesttubesforanhour?Which one is limp and which one is crisp?

 

 

 

B.  Howwouldyou explainthedifferenceintheconditionsofthepotatostripsusingtheconcept of tonicity?

 

 

 

 

 

C.  What was the tonicity of the fresh water solutionwith respect to the potato cells? D. What was the tonicity of the salt water solutionwith respect to the potato cells?

E.  How do the changes in the conditionsof the potato strips relate to the wiltingof plants?

 

 

 

 

 

 

F.    How does keeping vegetables cool slow them from wilting?

 

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Photosynthesis &Respiration

Hands-OnLabs,Inc.

Version42-0102-00-01

 

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Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute foraformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperimentsquestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables thatshouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.Theintentistofacilitatestudents’writingoflab reports by providing this informationin an editable filewhich can be sent to an instructor.

 

Observations                                                                                                           

 

Data Table 1: PhotosyntheticRates

Rate

Distance(mm)

Solutionstartingmeasurement

 

Net photosynthesis

 

Respiration

 

Gross photosynthesis (net photosynthesis + respiration)

 

Rate of photosynthesis (gross photosynthesis / 10 min)

 

Bag mass           g + 1.5 g NaHCO3 =              Final mass (g)

 

 

 

Data Table 2: Respiration Results

Experimental

Conditions

Startingdistance

(mm)

Final distance

(mm)

Change in movement

(mm)

Time

(min)

WithElodea

 

 

 

 

WithoutElodea

 

 

 

 


 

 

Questions                                                                                                          

Exercise 1:PhotosynthesisPartI

 

A. What molecules did the plant produce when exposed to light? B.  What resources were consumed to produce the molecule?

C.  What part did light play in the reaction?

 

 

 

D. What molecule was consumed by the plant while it was in the dark? E.  What molecule was produced by the plant while it was in the dark? F.   Where did the molecules go that were produced in the dark?

G. What criticalservice do plants provide humans?

 

 

 

H. Would animal life on Earth be possible without plants?

 

 

 

 

 

I.    Would any life on Earth be possible without sunlight?

 

 

 

Exercise 2:PhotosynthesisPartII

 

A. WhenyoublewthroughthestrawintotheBromothymolbluesolution,whatgasdidyouadd? What color change did you observe in the solutionand why?

 

 

 

B.  Whatcolorchangeoccurredafteryouplacedtheplantintotherespirometerandturnedon the light?


 

 

C.  What was happening when the solutionin the horizontal tubing started to move? D. How long did it take the color change to occur afterthe solutionstarted to move? E.  Why did the color change?

 

F.      Whenyourepeatedtheexperimentwithoutaplantintherespirometer,whathappenedand why?

 

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Plant Genetics

Hands-On Labs, Inc.

Version42-0104-00-01

 

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Thisdocumentisnotmeanttobeasubstitute foraformallaboratoryreport.TheLabReport Assistantissimplyasummaryoftheexperimentsquestions,diagramsifneeded,anddatatables thatshouldbeaddressedinaformallabreport.Theintentistofacilitatestudents’writingoflab reports by providing this informationin an editable filewhich can be sent to an instructor.

 

Observations                                                                                                           

 

Data Table 1: Punnettsquare.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Table 2: Seedling data.

 

 

Seedling Color

 

Green

Yellow

Total

Numberof

Seedlings

 

 

 

Percentageof

Total

 

 

 


 

 

Data Table 3: Frequency calculations.

 

Frequency

Expected

Values

 

Actual Values

 

Green

 

 

 

Yellow

 

 

 

Total

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Table 4: Corn kernel data.

 

 

Number of Kernels

Kernel Percentage

(Divide count by total, then

multiplyby 100)

Kernel Coloration

 

 

Purple

 

 

Yellow

 

 

Total

 

 

 

KernelTexture

 

 

Smooth

 

 

Wrinkled

 

 

Total

 

 


 

 

 

Data Table 5: Punnet square for dihybrid cross.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Data Table 6: Data from corn kernels.

 

 

Number Counted

 

Ratio:Number counted / total

Purple and smooth

 

 

Purple and wrinkled

 

 

Yellowand smooth

 

 

Yellowand wrinkled

 

 

TOTAL

 

 


 

 

Exercise 1: Observing a Monohybrid Cross

Questions                                                                                                          

 

A. What are the predicted ratiosof the phenotypes in the plants?

 

 

 

B.  What was the total number of seeds that germinated?

 

 

 

C.  What are the actual ratiosof the phenotypes displayed in the tobacco plants? D. Explain why it may be important to collect data from a larger population.

 

 

 

 

 

E.  Ifallyellowseedlingswereremovedfromthepopulation,wouldthenextgenerationstillhave a chance at displaying the yellow allele? Explain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

F.    Wouldacrossbetweenahomozygousandaheterozygousparentshowthesameratios?

Explain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Exercise 2: Dihybrid Crossing with Corn

Questions                                                                                                          

 

A. What are the probable phenotypes of the corn ear parents with regard to coloration?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

B.  What are the probable texture phenotypes of the corn parents?